Credits

Tutorial Menu:

 1.    Two photos of people from around the world and two photos of apes
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada

Interpreting the Fossil Record:

 1. Photo of a piece of amber with a spider trapped within
  reproduced under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license
(source = http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spider_in_amber_(1).jpg)
 2 Photo of the head of Tollund Man
  public domain photo (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tollundmannen.jpg)
 3.   Photo of a fossil of an extinct marine mollusk
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada
 4. Photo of a live nautilus
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada
 5. Drawing illustrating the mineralization of bone underground 
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Photo of Marcellin Boule
from Marcellin Boule, Fossil Men: Elements of Human Paleontology, 2nd ed. (1923)
 7. Drawing of an early 20th century mistaken depiction of a Neandertal
  reproduced from Illustrated London News (1909)

Overview of Dating:

 1.   Drawing of relative dating by relating geological strata 
produced by Dennis O'Neil

Relative Techniques:

 1.   Drawing of geological unconformities
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of changes in the amounts of Fluorine and Nitrogen over time in a buried bone
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Piltdown Man Hoax--podcast (copyright 2006 WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston

Chronometric Techniques: Part I:

 1.    Photo of ancient Maya glyphs
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada
 2. Photo of tree-rings
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Drawing of the correlation between tree growth-rings and rainfall amounts
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Drawing of the process of creating a master tree-ring sequence
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Drawing showing the process of determining the date of a log sample by comparison with a master tree-ring sequence
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Drawing of thermoremnant magnetism
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 7. Map showing the wandering magnetic north pole in recent centuries
produced by Dennis O'Neil (derived from Kenneth F. Weaver, "Magnetic Clues Help Date the Past", National Geographic, May 1967, pp. 696-701; National Resources Canada, Tracking the North Magnetic Pole, 1998, http://www.geolab.nrcan.gc.ca/geomag/e_nmpole.html); and North Magnetic Pole Could Be Leaving Canada, March 20, 2002, http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/space/03/20/north.pole/index.html)

Chronometric Techniques: Part II:

 1.    Graph showing the geometric rate of atomic decay
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing showing the natural production of carbon-14 and its entrance into the food chain 
produced by Dennis O'Neil (goat image reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada)
 3. Photo of a man working with a radiocarbon dating sample that has been converted to acetylene gas for analysis with a mass spectrometer
  reproduced with permission from the U.S. Geological Survey
 4. Graph of radiocarbon and tree-ring date comparisons 
produced by Dennis O'Neil (derived from H. E. Suess "Secular Variations of the Cosmic Ray Produced Carbon-14 in the Atmosphere," Journal of Geophysical Research, 70:5950, 1963)
 5. Drawing of dating volcanic ash strata above and below a bone sample to determine a minimum and a maximum age
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Drawing of fission tracks in obsidian seen through an optical microscope
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 7. Drawing of thermoluminescence release resulting from rapidly heating a clay sample
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 8. Graph of time ranges of chronometric dating techniques
produced by Dennis O'Neil

Glossary:   (illustrations already referenced above are not listed)

 1.   Drawings of Old World Paleolithic projectile point types used as artifact time markers
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Graph of seriation showing the frequency of three pottery styles changing through time 
produced by Dennis O'Neil

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Copyright 2000-2012 by Dennis O'Neil. All rights reserved.