Crossword Puzzle for Primates
Topics 4-6: Monkeys, New World Monkeys, and Old World Monkeys

Across

7. The term for cheeks that are so elastic that they can expand to allow temporary storage of food. Some of the Old World monkeys have this characteristic as do hamsters and some other rodents.
8. A kind of small New World monkey whose favorite food is carbohydrate rich tree sap which they tap by gnawing holes in trunks. Their territories are centered on the trees that they regularly exploit in this way. Some eat flower nectar as well. They are closely related to marmosets.
9. The term referring to a stomach with "saccules," or sack- like compartments, in which bacteria slowly break down cellulose in vegetable foods, such as tough leaves, thereby providing more useable calories. Among the primates, the colobus, langurs, and proboscis monkeys have this characteristic. Cows and related animals also have it.
13. A term referring to animals that spend much of their day on the ground but usually return to the trees to sleep.
15. A hairless, callused areas on either side of the rump of some Old World monkeys (e.g., macaques and baboons) and the small apes of Asia.
18. The only member of the Cercopithecinae subfamily of Old World monkeys that lives outside of Africa.
20. A kind of South Asian monkey that has a sacculated stomach.
21. The type of mammal teeth that are used like scissors for nipping off pieces of food. They are at the front of your mouth.
22. The infraorder of anthropoids that includes only the New World monkeys.
23. A skin surface that is sensitive to pressure, temperature, and pain because there are high concentrations of nerve endings immediately below these areas. The pad of skin with finger prints at the tip of your fingers is an example.
24. The largest New World monkey. Like the indris of Madagascar, they have developed the unusual habit of defending territory in the branches of their forest canopies with vocalizations. They do this with a specialized larynx and throat that expands like a balloon. Their deep, throaty sound is extraordinarily loud.
25. The only New World monkey species known to use tools as an aid in getting food. This monkey has the largest brain-to-body size ratio of any primate other than humans.

Down

1. A kind of African monkey that has cheek pouches but not a sacculated stomach.
2. A type of mammal teeth that are used primarily for grinding and smashing food. They are at the sides and back of your mouth.
3. A kind of African monkey that has a sacculated stomach.
4. The term for the quantity of each type of tooth (incisor, canine, premolar, and molar) in each quadrant of the mouth, counting from the front. For humans, Old world monkeys, and apes it is 2.1.2.3.
5. The family of New World primates that include squirrel, spider, woolly, capuchin, and many other monkey species. Some of them are as large as medium-sized dogs, but most are smaller. Like the Old World monkeys, they have nails on all of their fingers and toes. Some members of this family have prehensile tails.
6. The family of New World monkeys that includes the marmosets and tamarins. They are the smallest of all monkeys. They are also considered to be the most primitive monkeys in that their thumbs are not opposable, they have claws on all digits except for their big toes, they lack the ability to change their facial expressions, and twin births are common for them. They do not have prehensile tails.
10. The suborder that includes all of the monkeys, apes, and humans but not the prosimians.
11. The subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the baboons, mangabeys, mandrills, guenons, patas monkeys, and macaques. These are all African species with the exception of the macaques which also live in Asia and Gibraltar. Many of these species sleep in trees or on cliff faces and spend their days in large groups foraging for food on grasslands. Many of them also have ischial callosities, cheek pouches, and sexual skins. They are omnivorous.
12. The term referring to anatomical differences between males and females of the same species. For example, non-human Primate males are usually significantly larger and stronger than females.
14. A nearly hairless large swollen patch of skin around the genital area that becomes very prominent when females are in estrus. These areas swell with fluids and turn bright pink or red due to hormonal changes that occur in preparation for ovulation. They also produce odors that excite males of the species. Males become highly attentive to the females at this time. They are found among many of the Old World monkey species as well as the chimpanzees and bonobos.
16. The subfamily of Old World monkeys that include the colobus of Africa and the South Asian langurs and proboscis monkeys. All of them are herbivores. They lack cheek pouches. They also share in common the fact that they have sacculated stomachs and unusually long intestines that increase the absorption of nutrients. These are all adaptations to a predominantly low protein, fibrous leaf diet. Not surprisingly, they are also referred to as the "leaf- eating monkeys."
17. The type of mammal teeth that are used for piercing and tearing. You have one of these teeth in each quadrant of your mouth between the incisors and premolars.
19. The infraorder of anthropoids that include only the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans.


Copyright 2005-2008 by Dennis O'Neil. All rights reserved.