Practice Quiz for Discovery
of Early Hominins

No. of Questions= 16

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1 Which of the following statements is true of the australopithecines?
a)  They are members of our biological tribe of primates.
b)  They evolved about the same time as humans.
c)  They were habitually quadrupedal
2 The earliest australopithecines evolved from apes about ________ million years ago.
a) 1-2
b) 2-3
c) 3-3.5
d) 4-5
3 By 3 million years ago, the australopithecines were:
a) nearly extinct in Africa but were common in Southeast Asia
b) becoming common in East and South Africa
c) beginning to successfully adapt to cold temperate environments in Europe
d) none of the above
4 There apparently were at least two main evolutionary lines of hominins after 2.5 million years ago. The one that became our ancestors:
a) lived primarily in dense tropical forests on mountain slopes
b) was strictly vegetarian
c) was strictly carnivorous
d) none of the above
5 The first australopithecine fossil to be recognized as being something other than an ape was:
a) the Taung child
b) reported by Louis Leakey
c) discovered in the 1890's
d) none of the above
6 Raymond Dart concluded that the Taung child was a bipedal animal because
a) it had a brain as large as humans
b) it had hip and leg bones that looked like those of modern people
c) it was found in association with the bones of early humans
d) none of the above
7 The first australopithecine discovery (i.e., the Taung child) was classified as:
a) Australopithecus africanus
b) Paranthropus robustus
c) Australopithecus anamensis
8 The robust species of early hominins are commonly assigned to the genus ______________ .
a) Homo
b) Paranthropus
c) Ardipithecus
9 Paranthropus robustus differed from Australopithecus africanus in that the former:
a) often had a prominent sagittal crest
b) lived only in East Africa, while africanus lived only in South Africa
c) were smaller boned and more slender
10 The cave at Swartkrans in South Africa was carefully reinvestigated by C. K. Brain between 1965 and 1983. What did he find?
a) the bones of more than one species of hominin
b) evidence suggesting that leopards killed some of the early hominins at this site
c) stones from another area that were brought into the cave at the time that the early hominins were present
d) all of the above
11 Olduvai Gorge is located in:
a) the Great Rift Valley
b) East Africa
c) South Africa
d) a and b
12 The Zinjanthropus boisei fossil found by Louis and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in 1959 was anatomically closest to which early South African hominin?
a) Australopithecus africanus
b) Paranthropus robustus
c) Homo habilis
13 In 1974, a team of paleoanthropologists under the direction of Donald Johanson found a 40% complete skeleton of a very early hominin species at the Hadar site in the Afar Desert region of Northern Ethiopia. What was it called?
a) Australopithecus anamensis
b) Lucy
c) Australopithecus afarensis
d) b and c
14 In the early 1970's, Mary Leakey and Tim White found bones of what were likely Australopithecus afarensis dating in the range 3.7-3.5 million years ago at a site in Northern Tanzania named Laetoli. What else did they find there?
a) footprints of these early hominins
b) stone tools made by these early hominins
c) evidence of regular fire use
15 In 1995, Meave Leakey found a new, very early australopithecine species at Lake Turkana , Kenya which she named Australopithecus anamensis. Which of the following statements describe this fossil?
a) It was transitional between apes and later australopithecines.
b) It was really the same species as Australopithecus africanus.
c) It was very likely the only australopithecine ancestor of humans.
16 Tim White and several of his Ethiopian colleagues found a 4.4 million year old hominin known as Ardipithecus ramidus at the Aramis site in the Middle Awash region of Northern Ethiopia. Which of the following statements is true about this species?
a) They were probably the ancestors of the early australopithecines.
b) They were the ape ancestors of chimpanzees.
c) They were quadrupedal like chimpanzees and gorillas.
d) all of the above


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