Credits

Tutorial Menu:

 1.    Two photos of people from around the world and two photos of apes
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada

Discovery of Early Hominins:

 1.   Cenozoic Era time chart focusing on when the ape/hominin transitional species lived
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Photo of Raymond Dart with the Taung Child
from unknown source  (see note)
 3. Photo of Taung Child skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Photo of Robert Broom
from unknown source  (see note)
 5. Photos of Australopithecus africanus and robustus skulls
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Photo showing leopard canines fit punctures in hominin skull from Swartkrans
from unknown source  (see note)
 7. Photo of Louis Leakey with Zinjanthropus boisei and a gorilla skull
from unknown source  (see note)
 8. Photo of Zinjanthropus boisei skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 9. Photo of Lucy's skeleton
from unknown source  (see note)
10. Finding Lucy--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
11. Becoming a Fossil--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
12. Photo of Laetoli footprints
from unknown source  (see note)
13. Laetoli Footprints--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
14. Photo of the "Black Skull" (Paranthropus aethiopicus)
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
15. Map of major australopithecine sites 
produced by Dennis O'Neil

Analysis of Early Hominins:

 1.    Drawings of chimpanzee, Australopithecus africanus, and Homo sapiens pelvises and feet bones 
Homo sapiens pelvis and feet bones reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada.  Others are from unknown sources  (see note).  All six drawings have been extensively modified by Dennis O'Neil.  This illustration is not in the public domain. 
 2. Walking Tall--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
 3. Photo comparison of robust australopithecine and Homo sapiens skulls
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Photo of Australopithecus afarensis skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Photo of a reconstruction of the head and upper torso of an Australopithecus afarensis
  reproduced with permission under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2. Photo source is Wikepedia.
 6. Photo of a reconstruction of the head and upper torso of an Kenyathropus platyops
  reproduced with permission under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2. Photo source is Wikepedia.
 7. Photo of Australopithecus africanus skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 8. Photo comparison of gracile and robust skulls
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 9. photo of the upper teeth of a robust australopithecine adult with the incisors, canines, premolars, and molars labeled.
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
10. Australopithecus robustus skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
11. Australopithecus boisei skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
12. Photo of Australopithecus aethiopicus skull
produced by Dennis O'Neil
13. Graph showing the family tree of early hominins and early humans  
produced by Dennis O'Neil
14. Search for the first human--video clip from PBS series Secrets of the Dead, episode "Search for the First Human" (copyright 2002 Educational Broadcasting Corporation.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston

Glossary of Terms:

 1.   chimpanzee with its mouth open showing different kinds of teeth
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada (enhanced by Dennis O'Neil)
 2. Map of the Great Rift Valley system
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Photo of a robust australopithecine skull (front and side views) with the sagittal crest and mandible highlighted
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Photo of a robust australopithecine skulls (front and side views)  with the zygomatic arch highlighted
produced by Dennis O'Neil

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Copyright 2000-2012 by Dennis O'Neil. All rights reserved.