Crossword Puzzle for
Biological Basis of Heredity
Topic 5: Molecular Level of Genetics
2. The form of RNA that carries a
copy of a specific sequence of
genetic information (a gene) from
the DNA in the cell nucleus to the
ribosomes in the cytoplasm where
it is translated in order to
synthesize a protein. This form
of RNA is assembled on one
sequence (one strand) of DNA bases.
7. A kind of organic molecule that is
a building block of proteins.
Proteins are composed of different
combinations of 20 different kinds
of these molecules assembled in
9. A type of nucleic acid that is
found in both the nucleus and the
cytoplasm of cells. Unlike DNA,
this molecule is single stranded.
Different forms of it play
important roles in the synthesis
10. A basic building block of nucleic
acids. It consists of any one of
four specific chemical bases
attached to a sugar and phosphate
12. The category of organic molecules
that include fats, oils, and
13. A sequence of three nucleotides in
a DNA or RNA molecule that codes
for a specific type of amino acid
that will be used in the synthesis
of a protein.
15. The term for a protein that causes
or regulates specific chemical
reactions within cells.
16. Small rod-like structures in the
cytoplasm that produce fuel for
the cell in the form of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). A small
amount of DNA is located in these structures. This DNA is normally
inherited only from mothers and is
distinct from DNA that makes up
17. A form of RNA that binds to
specific amino acid molecules and
transports them to the ribosomes
for the assembly of proteins.
This form of RNA temporarily bonds
with corresponding mRNA codons at
the ribosomes in this process of
1. A large organic molecule that
stores the genetic code for the
synthesis of proteins. It is
composed of sugars, phosphates and
bases arranged in a twisted ladder
shape. Segments of this molecule
correspond to specific genes.
3. Small roughly spherical structures
near the endoplasmic reticula in
the cytoplasm of cells. These
structures are the sites where
proteins are assembled by the
momentary bonding of mRNA and tRNA.
4. A large chain-like molecule that
is normally twisted and folded
back on itself in a complex
pattern. Molecules of this type
serve as structural material for
the body, gas transporters,
neurotransmitters, and enzymes.
5. The process at the beginning of
mitosis and meiosis by which a DNA
molecule is duplicated or copied.
One DNA molecule becomes two
identical ones. This is
accomplished by the DNA molecule
unwinding and unzipping along its
base pairs so that both sides can
be copied by free nucleotides.
6. The largest kind of molecule in
humans and other organisms. DNA
and RNA are types of this kind of
8. The name for the twisted ladder
shape that is characteristic of
11. The category of organic molecules
that include sugars and starches.
14. DNA base pairs that do not code
for proteins and, therefore, are
not part of genes. These kinds of
base pairs have been referred to
as "junk" DNA, however,
it is now known that they perform
15. DNA base pairs that code for
proteins and, therefore, are part
of genes. Only 1.1-1.5% of DNA
consists of these kinds of base
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