Credits

Tutorial Menu:

 1.    Two photos of people from around the world and two photos of apes
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada

Basic Cell Structures:

 1.   Drawing of a generalized animal cell
produced by Dennis O'Neil (based partly on an unknown source)
 2. Drawing of a human male karyotype
produced by Dennis O'Neil in part from public domain karyotype illustration produced by the National Human Genome Research Institute
 3. Gender Testing of Female Athletes--interactive exercise
  produced by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute
 4. Drawings of homozygous and hemizygous chromosomes
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Drawing of doubled human chromosomes
produced by Dennis O'Neil (based partly on an unknown source)
 6 Drawing of doubled human chromosomes with chromatids and centromere highlighted
produced by Dennis O'Neil (based partly on an unknown source)

Cell Reproduction:

 1.  Drawing of phases of mitosis
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Mitosis--video clip from Teachers' Domain (copyright 2007 WGBH Educational Foundation and Vulcan Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission form Teachers' Domain
 3. Drawing of 8 phases of spermatogenesis (i.e., meiosis in males)
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. How cells divide--side by side simulations of mitosis and meiosis (produced to accompany the PBS video "Life's Greatest Miracles"; copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
 5. Drawing of summary of reduction division in meiosis
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Drawing of human sex cells
produced by Dennis O'Neil (based partly on an unknown source)
 7. Drawing of the human female reproductive system
reproduced with permission from Corel Corporation, Ottawa, Canada (modified and enhanced by Dennis O'Neil)

Mitosis Close Up:

 1.  Drawing of Interphase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of Prophase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Drawing of Metaphase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Drawing of Anaphase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Drawing of Telophase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Drawing of Interphase
produced by Dennis O'Neil

Meiosis Close Up:

 1.  Drawing of Interpahse to prophase
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of Metaphase I
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Drawing of Anaphase I
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Drawing of Telophase I
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Drawing of Metaphase II
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 6. Drawing of  the culmination of meiosis
produced by Dennis O'Neil

Recombination and Linkage:

 1.  Drawing of homologous chromosomes separating in the production of sex cells
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of genetic linkage continues as homologous chromosomes separate in the formation of sex cells
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Drawing of crossing-over unlinks genes as homologous chromosomes separate in the formation of sex cells
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. The Red Queen--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
 5. Photo of Human chromosomes with telomeres shown in white
  Public domain photo produced by the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program

Sex Linked Genes:

 1.  Drawing of the sex cell inheritance patterns for male and female children
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of X-linkage in men
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 3. Drawing of X-linkage in women
produced by Dennis O'Neil
 4. Photo of a painting of Queen Victoria (1819-1901) with her husband and nine children in 1857
  public domain
 5. Life's Greatest Miracle--PBS Nova series video on conception, gestation, and birth
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston

Molecular Level of Genetics:

 1.  Drawing of a section of a DNA molecule showing the double helix molecular shape
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
 2. Drawing of the relationship of a DNA molecule to a Chromosome
  produced by Dennis O'Neil based on a public domain drawing produced by U.S. Natuional Human Genome Research
 3. Don't Throw It Out: 'Junk DNA' Essential In Evolution (copyright 2011 National Public Radio)       
  linked with permission from National Public Radio
 4. Graphical illustration of the fact that 1- 3% of a DNA molecule consists of exons, 24+% introns, and 73+% junk DNA
  Produced by Dennis O'Neil
 5. Drawing of a generalized animal cell with mitochondria highlighted
  produced by Dennis O'Neil (based partly on an unknown source)
 6. Drawing of a DNA molecule partially unwinding and unzipping along the base pairs
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
 7. Drawing of free nucleotides attracted to exposed bases of a partially unzipped DNA molecule 
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
 8. Drawing of mRNA migrating out of the cell nucleus
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
 9. Drawing of a generalized animal cell with ribosomes and endoplasmic reticula highlighted 
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
10. Drawing of protein synthesis at the ribosomes initiated by mRNA momentarily bonding with tRNA
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
11. Drawing of the sugar-phosphate-base chemical bond of a codon
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
12. Drawing of DNA replication
  produced by Dennis O'Neil
13. From DNA to Protein--video clip from Teachers' Domain (copyright 2002 WGBH Educational Foundation and Vulcan Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission form Teachers' Domain
14. How DNA replicates--video clip from Teachers' Domain (copyright 2007 WGBH Educational Foundation and Vulcan Productions, Inc.)
  linked with permission form Teachers' Domain
15. The common genetic code--video clip from PBS 2001 series Evolution (copyright 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.)       
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
16. Epigenetics--PBS Nova Science Now video excerpt (copyright 2007 WGBH Educational Foundation)       
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
17. RNAi explained--PBS Nova Science Now video excerpt (copyright 2005 WGBH Educational Foundation)       
  linked with permission from WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston
18. The Human Genome Project--3D Animation Introduction
  Public domain video produced by the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health

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Copyright 2000-2012 by Dennis O'Neil. All rights reserved.